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Understanding Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease (FLUTD)

Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease (FLUTD) is an encompassing term that refers to various conditions impacting a cat's lower urinary tract, including the bladder and urethra.

Dr. Bethany Hsia

August 06, 2023

Understanding Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease (FLUTD)

Welcome to CodaPet. In this comprehensive guide, we'll explore the ins and outs of Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease (FLUTD). We will discuss what FLUTD is, its causes, symptoms, the importance of early diagnosis, and the various treatment options available. By reading this article, you will gain a deeper understanding of this condition, empowering you to better care for your feline friend, especially if they have been diagnosed with FLUTD. We're here to support you on this journey, providing information and explanation; for diagnosis and expert advice pertaining to your pet, please consult your trusted family veterinarian.

What is FLUTD?

Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease (FLUTD) is an encompassing term that refers to various conditions impacting a cat's lower urinary tract, including the bladder and urethra. These medical conditions manifest in clinical symptoms that are incredibly similar, and identifying the underlying cause often requires extensive investigation.

Instances of FLUTD can range from minor behavioral conditions like Feline Idiopathic Cystitis (FIC) to severe cases of urethral obstruction, that can pose a grave risk to your pets health and should be treated with urgency.

Some of the more common forms of FLUTD involve Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs), bladder stones (Urolithiasis), Feline Idiopathic Cystitis (FIC), and sometimes cancer of the bladder or urethra. While it can affect cats across all age ranges, FLUTD is commonly observed in young to middle-aged adult cats.

Causes of FLUTD in Cats

FLUTD in cats can be triggered by several factors. Changes in the cat's anatomy, obesity, specific diets, and certain genetic predispositions may heighten the risk of developing urinary tract infections and bladder stones. In addition, perceived threats or high-stress environments may also trigger FLUTD symptoms.

More specifically, common causes of FLUTD include bladder stones, bacterial cystitis in older cats, urethral plugs in male cats, anatomical defects of lower urinary tract, bladder tumors, and idiopathic cystitis (inflammation of the bladder without a known explanation). Furthermore, FLUTD is seen more frequently in indoor cats, those with a dry diet, middle-aged cats, neutered cats, overweight cats, and cats that lack sufficient exercise.

The Anatomy of a Cat's Urinary System

To better understand FLUTD, let's take a quick look at a cat's urinary system. This system consists of the kidneys, the ureters, the urinary bladder, and the urethra. It's responsible for filtering out waste products from the blood and removing them from the body in the form of urine. Any alterations or dysfunctions in these body parts can contribute to FLUTD.

The kidneys play a crucial role in maintaining the right balance of water, salts, and acids in the body. They also aid in controlling blood pressure, stimulating red blood cell production, and processing Vitamin D. The ureters are the tubes that transport urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder, where it is temporarily stored before being eliminated through the urethra and out into the environment.

General Symptoms of FLUTD

Symptoms of FLUTD in cats can range from subtle to severe, depending on the severity of the condition. These can include urinating outside the litter box, frequent trips to the litter box with little urine, pain (often observed as vocalizing while urinating), the appearance of blood in the urine, and changes in appetite and water intake.

FLUTD symptoms might also consist of behavioral changes such as aggression or irritation, excessive grooming, particularly around the genital region, and litter-box avoidance. In severe cases, FLUTD could lead to a blocked urethra, in which the cat is unable to urinate. This is a life-threatening emergency situation requiring immediate veterinary intervention.

Veterinary Examination Process for FLUTD

If you notice your cat showing signs of discomfort during their bathroom breaks, or even signs of avoiding their litter box entirely, it's natural to feel concerned. The first step in diagnosing Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease (FLUTD) is a thorough veterinary examination. Let's explore what this entails.

During the visit, your veterinarian will start by gathering an inclusive health and habit history. They'll ask about your cat's behavior changes, diet, water intake, and the occurrence and frequency of any aberrant bathroom behavior, like accidents outside the litter box, or blood in the urine. Because cats tend to be very sensitive to change, your vet will also be interested in learning about any environmental changes, or new stressors, such as a change in diet, a new human or animal house mate, moving to a new home or any other recent change.

This verbal examination is crucial as it gives context to the physical examination and diagnostic tests, providing the vet with an overall picture of your feline companion's health. It may also be helpful to show the veterinarian any pictures of abnormal urine or short videos of abnormal behavior you’ve witnessed.

The vet will then conduct a comprehensive physical examination. This generally includes checking the cat’s weight, listening to the heart and lungs, and a meticulous check of the lower urinary system. Palpating the cat’s abdomen can help the veterinarian detect any abnormalities like bladder stones, a thickened bladder wall, or any discomfort your cat feels upon abdominal touch.

We know veterinary examinations for FLUTD can often be stressful for both the cat and the family witnessing it. However, these are necessary steps for the accurate diagnosis and treatment of FLUTD. Your veterinarian will use all the resources at their disposal to make this process as comfortable as possible for your cherished pet.

Performing Tests for FLUTD

Once your cat goes through a thorough physical examination, your vet may recommend a series of tests. These help pinpoint the exact cause of the urinary issue.

A common test for diagnosing FLUTD is urinalysis. This involves analyzing your cat's urine for any abnormal elements such as red and white blood cells, crystals, or bacteria. It may also detect the presence of anomalous urinary components that can suggest diabetes or kidney disease. Often, your vets order a urine culture, a test that allows any bacteria present in the urine to grow and the type of bacteria to be identified. This test can confirm or rule out a urinary tract infection (UTI) and point to proper antibiotic treatment if a UTI is present.

Further testing could involve blood tests to gauge the overall health status of your cat, and to exclude diseases that might cause similar symptoms. Radiographs or X-rays can be immensely helpful in visualizing stones in the urinary bladder or kidneys. Sometimes, an ultrasound may be necessary to better visualize the bladder and the urinary tract's structure which also helps to rule out bladder cancer.

Performing Tests for FLUTD

Understanding Diagnostic Results of FLUTD

After running tests, your vet will discuss the results with you. If the diagnosis is FLUTD, the vet will test and attempt to further classify it into a specific syndrome such as bladder stones, feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC), a urinary tract infection due to bacteria, or an anatomical abnormality. This specific diagnosis helps tailor individual therapy, as the treatment will differ vastly depending on the underlying cause.

Understanding these results and the implication on your cat's health can be overwhelming. Remember, it's okay to ask your veterinarian to explain anything that seems confusing. Your understanding helps your vet care for your cat, as you're a vital member of your cat's health management team.

Importance of Early Diagnosis of FLUTD

Along with providing immediate relief to your furry friend, diagnosing FLUTD early is crucial in preventing serious complications like urethral blockages (more common in males), which can become life-threatening emergencies. The longer your cat suffers with unaddressed FLUTD the more potential for long-term tissue damage or organ damage (such as acute renal disease). In addition, an early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help prevent recurrence which is unfortunately common in FLUTD conditions.

Overall, while diagnosing FLUTD in your cat might feel daunting, remember that your veterinarian is there to guide you through the process. Consult a veterinarian if you notice any change in your pet's behavior or health.

Treatment Options for Cat Urinary Tract Infection (FLUTD)

When your cat is diagnosed with Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease (FLUTD), it's natural to wonder about the treatment options available. In this section, we will explore medical treatments, surgical procedures for severe cases, home care strategies, and recent advancements in FLUTD treatments. Armed with this knowledge, you can better understand your vet's recommendations and make more informed decisions about your cat's treatment.

Medical Treatments for FLUTD

Once FLUTD is diagnosed, your veterinarian will likely utilize a series of medical treatments based on the cat's specific syndrome, which can include a variety of tools ranging from antibiotics to specially formulated diets.

For instance, a mainstay of treatment for cases involving urinary tract infections is appropriate antibiotic therapy. Antibiotics targeted at the offending bacteria help eliminate the infection, thereby relieving symptoms and preventing further complications; rechecks are often necessary to ensure the infection is resolved. On the other hand, if the FLUTD is due to conditions like Feline Idiopathic Cystitis (FIC), the treatment may involve the use of pain medications and anti-spasmodic drugs. A prescription diet can also be recommended to reduce inflammation and irritation in the urinary tract.

Increasing water consumption is often emphasized in managing FLUTD; ample hydration can aid in flushing out urinary crystals or bacteria and supporting kidney health. Your veterinarian may recommend providing a kitty water fountain to encourage drinking or feeding wet food to increase water consumption.

Surgical Treatments for Severe Cases

In some severe cases of FLUTD, particularly when urolithiasis (bladder stones) or severe urinary tract obstruction is present, surgical intervention may be necessary. Uroliths, solid deposits in the urinary tract, can cause pain, irritation, and life-threatening obstructions. If uroliths cannot be managed or dissolved through dietary changes, your cat may require a cystotomy (surgically opening the bladder) for stone removal.

A severe urethral obstruction is a life-threatening emergency that demands immediate intervention. A cat with a full blockage is unable to urinate and will require sedation, urinary catheterization, intravenous fluid therapy, and sometimes even surgery to remove the obstruction and restore urine flow. Aftercare includes diligent monitoring and possibly a special diet to prevent recurrence.

Home Care for Cats with FLUTD

Home care plays a significant role in managing FLUTD and ensuring your cat's overall health. Aside from administering prescribed medications faithfully, there are several steps you can take to provide an optimal environment for your cat's recovery and prevention of future flare-ups.

Certain intentional environmental changes may aid in reducing stress triggers, a notable factor in some types of FLUTD like feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC). Providing more litter box options and ensuring easy access to food, water, and safe spaces can help minimize stress for your cat. As a rule of thumb, many vets recommend the home has one litter box per cat, plus one more litter box. The important thing is that your cat can access a litter box that is clean and nearby wherever they wish to spend time.

Monitor for inter housemate aggression or bullying and for difficulty reaching and getting into a litter box, especially for cats who may also suffer from osteoarthritis. Whenever possible, minimize sudden changes to the environment. Additionally, encouraging abundant water intake, keeping your cat at an appropriate weight, appropriate mental stimulation, and exercise can contribute to managing your cat's weight, another crucial factor in preventing FLUTD.

Advancements in FLUTD Treatments

As the field of veterinary medicine continually evolves, we're seeing newer and potentially more effective treatment strategies for FLUTD.

Although FLUTD remains a complex condition to manage, scientific advancements have improved diagnosis accuracy and personalized treatment plans. As we learn more about the various causes of FLUTD and their interconnectedness, the ability to tailor treatments to each cat's specific needs improves, enhancing their quality of life and potentially reducing the recurrence of symptoms.

It's important to remember that each cat is unique, and what works well for one might not for another. Discuss various possibilities with your veterinarian to find the best treatment plan for your feline friend, and remember, patience and dedication are key components in managing this condition.

Preventing FLUTD in Cats

Preventive Measures for FLUTD

Naturally, you want to do what you can to prevent your feline friend from developing FLUTD. But what can possibly be done to ward it off? Let’s explore some of the preventive measures you can take.

One of the key factors is to encourage your cat to drink more water. A well-hydrated cat is less likely to develop crystals in their urine, a common cause of FLUTD. In cases where simply placing water bowls around the house doesn't do the trick, you may consider switching to wet food or getting a cat water fountain. Some families find that letting a bathroom sink drip water slowly into the basin helps while others find their cats sneaking in to get water from a recently used showerhead. Many cats are enticed by the flowing water these devices provide, which encourages them to drink more.

Another crucial aspect is the maintenance of a clean and inviting litter box. Cats are exceptionally fastidious animals and may avoid using a soiled or stinky litter box. As discussed before, pay special attention to the number of litter boxes and how easily accessible they are. Some cats show preferences for the type of the litter substrate as well as the style of litter box (covered or uncovered, top opening, side opening, mechanized, etc). All these factors can contribute to cats holding in their urine for extended periods, which is a potential risk factor for FLUTD.

Importance of Diet and Hydration

Understanding the role of diet and hydration in preventing FLUTD is critical for any cat owner. A balanced diet containing the right quantity of minerals minimizes the risk of urinary stone formation. A diet too rich in minerals such as magnesium and phosphorus can lead to the formation of certain types of crystals in the urinary tract, a potential cause of FLUTD.

Some prescription diets are formulated to maintain the proper balance of such minerals as well as promoting a lower pH in the urine, which can dissolve or prevent the formation of certain types of crystals. It is important to note that feeding anything in addition to prescription diets can cause mineral imbalance and alkalinization of the urine which will render the prescription diet ineffective. Therefore, it is important to feed your cat only the prescribed diet, unless otherwise specified by your veterinarian.

Hydration is equally important, as water helps dilute the urine and ensure that the urinary system is flushing out effectively. Canned or wet cat food can be a good supplement for water, particularly for cats who don't have a strong instinct to drink regularly. And, as mentioned earlier, the use of cat water fountains can stimulate interest in drinking water.

The Role of Regular Veterinary Check-ups

Regular veterinary check-ups play a pivotal role in both early detection and prevention of FLUTD. Early detection means quicker treatment, less suffering for your cat, less potential for long-term tissue or kidney damage, and likely less costly treatments. Regular health checks can often identify issues before they become serious, including early signs of FLUTD.

During the check-up your veterinarian will conduct a thorough physical examination, including screening blood tests and urinalysis. They will also ask about your cat's behavior and history, likely including questions about diet, water intake, and urinary behavior. They will also check for risk factors such as obesity, which can increase the likelihood of a cat developing FLUTD among other diseases.

Lifestyle Adjustments for FLUTD Prevention

The prevention of FLUTD also hinges on making necessary lifestyle adjustments. We know that stress can be a key factor in the development of FLUTD, particularly in a subset of conditions known as Feline Idiopathic Cystitis (FIC). As mentioned above, it's crucial to provide an environment that minimizes stress for your cat. In addition to providing multiple, clean litter boxes in multi-cat households, it’s important to ensure that each of your cats has a quiet space to retreat to if they are timid around other pets or people.

Physical exercise and environmental enrichment are also important in FLUTD prevention. A cat that is physically active is less likely to become overweight, reducing the risk of developing FLUTD. Encourage physical activity by providing toys, climbing trees, and taking time to play with your cat regularly.

While it may not be possible to prevent FLUTD in all cats, these measures represent the best way to reduce the chances of your feline friend developing these challenging conditions. As always, we're here to help and encourage discussion with your veterinarian for advice that is personalized to your home and cat or cats.

Living with a Cat with FLUTD

Understanding Your Cat’s Needs

Caring for a cat with FLUTD requires a profound understanding of your furry friend's needs. Unlike in humans, gauging a feline's discomfort can be challenging as cats are adept at concealing their distress, a trait inherited from their wild ancestors.

The initial task lies in identifying signs of FLUTD. As mentioned before, these might include discomfort during urination, frequent urination with minimal output, urination outside the litter box, excessive grooming of the genital area, and in serious cases vocalization and abrupt changes in behavior such as aggression or irritation.

Understanding your cat's needs is not just limited to recognizing FLUTD symptoms but also identifying potential FLUTD triggers, which often include stress, diet, obesity, lack of exercise, and indoor confinement.

The key is to pick up on subtle signs and communication from your cat; being sensitive to their needs and observant of their discomforts can translate into health and safety for your feline.

Managing FLUTD Flare-ups

Unfortunately, FLUTD is often a recurring condition. Monitoring for and managing flare-ups is crucial to your cat's wellbeing. While an occasional lapse in litter-box use might not seem alarming, recurrent signs should prompt immediate action. Consulting with your vet swiftly can help initiate early diagnosis and intervention and hopefully head off serious complications.

Unless directed by your vet, continue with the general FLUTD friendly measures: increasing your cat’s water intake, maintaining clean accessible litter boxes, feeding as recommended- especially if your cat has been prescribed a certain diet.

If your cat is being treated as an out-patient during a flare-up, do your best to maintain a serene environment. As discussed above, stress is a known trigger for FLUTD and managing stress can go a long way in promoting relief.

Sadly, families with cats who experience frequent or severe occurrences of FLUTD often feel they are waiting for the next emergency. This can contribute to a sense of care-taker fatigue and anticipatory grief. If you feel this may describe you please reach out to your veterinarian for resources or speak with a professional counselor.

Supporting Your Cat’s Mental Well-being

FLUTD often leads to changes in your cat's behavior. These changes could manifest as restlessness, aggression, irritability, or at times, seclusion. It is essential to understand these signs and take the appropriate steps to address your cat's mental wellbeing.

Environmental enrichment plays a key role here. Access to an assortment of toys, scratching posts, and perches encourage natural behaviors, mitigate stress, and lend positivity. Some cats respond well to calming pheromones which can come in sprays or plug-ins. These devices are designed to spread the chemicals that cats release when rubbing their face on a person or object marking it as safe or non-threatening. On that note, it is important to ensure that your cat has a safe and non-threatening environment. If there is inter-cat aggression or bullying from other housemates (animal or small human) it is crucial to provide a place where your cat(s) can retreat and find solitude if they wish.

Additionally, ensuring that the essentials -water, the proper food, and a clean litter box are readily accessible. Lastly, regular sessions of gentle playtime, petting, and social interaction contribute to your cat's mental wellbeing, establishing a sense of bonding and reassurance.

Promoting a Healthy Lifestyle for Cats with FLUTD

Alongside managing flare-ups and mental well-being, promoting a healthy lifestyle is pivotal for preventing exacerbations of FLUTD. A balanced diet, regular exercise, and optimal water consumption work together to maintain a healthy urinary tract.

If your cat is overweight, a weight management plan under your vet's supervision is a sensible starting point. Your vet will address both what to feed and how much to feed. They may also formulate a graduated feeding plan to implement the desired changes in a slow and controlled manner.

Promoting interactive play sessions and providing stimulating toys can encourage physical activity and mental stimulation, contributing to a healthier lifestyle.

Finally, offering your cat a stress-free environment by minimizing sudden changes and maintaining a consistent routine can lessen the chances of FLUTD flare-ups.


Understanding and managing Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease (FLUTD) can seem daunting, but remember, you're not alone. At CodaPet, we understand the challenges that come with caring for a pet with a chronic and potentially recurring condition like FLUTD. We hope this comprehensive guide has equipped you with the knowledge you need to understand the management of the condition effectively. Remember that your trusted family veterinarian is an ally in this journey, guiding you and your furry friend towards the path of well-being.



Dr. Bethany graduated from the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine in 2010. After graduation, she moved west. Dr. Bethany spent a year at a small animal exclusive practice in Washington state, where she was first introduced to in-home euthanasia. She gravitated towards helping pet parents and their pets in their last moments when it seemed other doctors did not find an interest. Growing up, Bethany had many childhood pets and occasionally tended to injured wildlife. The ability to calm and comfort animals seemed to come naturally to her. Dr. Bethany believes a peaceful passing is the last gift we give our pets and that it’s a gift best given at home. In her spare time, Dr. Bethany enjoys reading and running, although her favorite time is spent together with her husband and their young children. Read More